Widely believed to have produced enough weapons-grade plutonium for 100 to 200 nuclear warheads
Developing a comprehensive multi-layered missile defense system
Not a state party to the NPT, CTBT, BTWC, CWC or MTCR

Situated in a high conflict region, Israel possesses advanced conventional military capabilities, and has for decades maintained a policy of opacity (in Hebrew, amimut) regarding its WMD programs. While experts generally agree that Israel possesses nuclear weapons, no such current open source consensus exists on the status of Israel’s offensive chemical or biological weapons programs.

Israel also possesses a sizeable arsenal of short- and medium-range ballistic and cruise missiles, and is working towards a multi-layered and comprehensive missile defense capability.

Israel is not a party to any of the major treaties governing WMD nonproliferation, including the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR), and the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC). It has signed, but not ratified, the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) and the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC).

However, Israel is considered a “unilateral adherent” to the MTCR and has recently adopted national export control regulations on chemical and biological materials consistent with Australia Group standards.

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